ECT Reference List

ECT Reference Library from Dantec Dynamics UK. Distributors of Thymatron System IV.


  • Abrams R (2002): Electroconvulsive Therapy (4th Ed.), New York, Oxford U. Press.
  • Alkire MT (1998): Quantitative EEG correlations with brain glucose metabolic rate during anesthesia in volunteers. Anesthesiology 89:323-33


  • Bailine SH, Rifkin A, Kayne E et al (2000): Comparison of bifrontal and bitemporal ECT for major depression. Am J Psych 157:121-123
  • Beale MD et al (1994): Stimulus dose titration in ECT: A 2-year clinical experience. Convul. Ther. 10:171-176.
  • Benbow SM, Benbow J, Tomenson B (2003): Electroconvulsive therapy clinics in the United Kingdom should routinely monitor electroencephalographic seizures. J ECT 19:217-220
  • Billard V, Gambus PL, Chamoun N, et al (1997): A comparison of spectral edge, delta power, and bispectral index as EEG measures of alfentanil, propofol, and midazolam drug effect. Clin Pharmacol Ther 61:45-58


  • Chanpattana W (2001): Seizure threshold in electroconvulsive therapy: Effect of Instrument titration schedule. German J Psychiatry 51-56
  • Couture LJ et al (1988): Monitoring seizure duration during electroconvulsive therapy. Convul. Ther. 4:206-14.


  • d’Elia G, Ottosson JO, Strömgren LS (1982): [Practical directives for modern electroconvulsive therapy] [Danish]. Ugeskr Laeger 144:1462-7.
  • d’Elia G, Ottosson JO, Strömgren LS (1982): [Practical guidelines for electroconvulsive therapy] [Swedish]. Lakartidningen 79:2021-3.
  • d’Elia G, Ottosson JO, Strömgren LS (1983): Present practice of electroconvulsive therapy in Scandinavia. Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:577-81.
  • Devanand DP, Lisanby SH, Nobler MS et al (1998): The relative efficiency of altering pulse frequency or train duration when determining seizure threshold. J ECT 14:227-235


  • Ende G, Braus DF, Walter S et al (2000): The hippocampus in patients treated with electroconvulsive therapy: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:937-943

F, G:

  • Fink M, Abrams, R (1998): EEG monitoring in ECT: a guide to treatment efficacy. Psych Times, May, 1998 (pp. 70-72)
  • Fink M, Kahn RL (1957): Relation of EEG delta activity to behavioral response in electroshock: Quantitative serial studies. Arch. Neurol. Psychiat. 78:516-525.
  • Guze BH, Liston EH, Baxter, L.R., Jr., et al (1989): Poor interrater reliability of MECTA EEG recordings of ECT seizure duration. J Clin. Psychiatry 50:140-142


  • Hans P, Bonhomme V, Benmansour H, et al (2001): Effect of nitrous oxide on the bispectral index and the 95% spectral edge frequency of the electroencephalogram during surgery. Anaesthesia 56:999-1002


  • Isenberg KE et al (1996): Effect of stimulus parameters on seizure threshold and duration . Convul. Ther. 12:68.


  • Koitabashi T, Johansen JW, Sebel PS (2002): Remifentanil dose/electroencephalogram bispectral response during combined propofol/regional anesthesia. Anesth Analg 94:1530-3
  • Krystal AD et al (2000): ECT stimulus intensity: are present ECT devices too limited? Am J Psychiatry 157:963-967
  • Krystal AD, Weiner R (1995): ECT seizure duration: reliability of manual and computer-automated determinations. Convul. Therapy 11:158-169
  • Krystal AD, Weiner R (2001): ECT Failure Rate Among Specific Devices [reply] Am J Psych 158:974
  • Krystal AD, Weiner RD (1994): ECT seizure therapeutic adequacy. Convul. Ther. 10:153-164.
  • Krystal et al (1995): The ictal EEG as a marker of adequate stimulus intensity with unilateral ECT. J. Neuropsych. 7:295-303.
  • Kuizenga K, Wierda JM, Kalkman CJ (2001): Biphasic EEG changes in relation to loss of consciousness during induction with thiopental, propofol, etomidate, midazolam or sevoflurane. Br J Anaesth 86:354-60


  • Larson G, Swartz CM, Abrams R (1984): Duration of ECT-induced tachycardia as a measure of seizure length. Am. J. Psych. 141:1269-1271.
  • Lawson JS, Inglis J, Delva NJ et al (1990): Electrode placement in ECT: cognitive effects. Psychol Med 20:335-44.
  • Letemendia JF, Delva NJ, Rodenberg M et al (1993): Therapeutic advantage of bifrontal electrode placement in ECT. Psychol Med 23:349-60.


  • McCall et al (1993): A reappraisal of the role of caffeine in ECT. Am. J. Psych. 150:1543-1545.
  • McDonald T, Berkowitz R, Hoffman WE (1999): Median EEG frequency is more sensitive to increases in sympathetic activity than bispectral index. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol 11:255-9
  • Mecta Corporation (1998): Spectrum Instruction Manual.


  • Nobler MS et al (1993): EEG manifestations during ECT: Effects of electrode placement and stimulus intensity. Biol. Psych. 34:321-330.


  • Perera TD, Anderson CT, Ginsberg B, et al (2002): The predictive value of EEG measures in determining treatment outcomes and cognitive side effects during ECT treatment for major depression. [poster] J ECT 18:63
  • Petrides G, Fink M (1996): The "half-age" stimulation strategy for ECT dosing. Convul. Ther. 12:138-146.
  • Petrides G, Kellner C, Knapp R et al (2000): Can Ictal EEG Indices predict Response to ECT? NCDEU Presentation, Jan. 2000


  • Rasmussen KG et al (1994): Possible impact of stimulus duration on seizure threshold in ECT. Convul. Ther. 10:177-180.
  • Ries RK (1985): Poor interrater reliability of MECTA EEG seizure duration measurement during ECT. Biol. Psychiatry 20:94-98
  • Roemer et al (1990-91): Relation between pretreatment electroencephalographic coherence measures and subsequent response to electroconvulsive therapy: a preliminary study. Neuropsychobiology 24:121-124.
  • Rosenquist PB, McCall WV, Colenda CC et al (1998): A comparison of visual and computer-generated measures of “seizure quality”. J ECT 14:76-82
  • Sackeim et al (1996): The effects of electroconvulsive therapy on quantitative electroencephalograms: Relationship to clinical outcome. Arch. Gen. Psych. 53:814-824.


  • Sackeim HA et al (1987): Effects of electrode placement on the efficacy of titrated, low dosage ECT. Am J Psychiatry 144:1449-55
  • Sackeim HA et al (2000): A prospective, randomized, double-blind comparison of lateral and right unilateral electroconvulsive therapy at different stimulus intensities. Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:425-434
  • Sackeim HA, Prudic J, Nobler MS et al (2001): Ultra-brief pulse ECT and the affective and cognitive consequences of ECT. J ECT 17:76
  • Sakai T, Singh H, et al (1999): Hypnotic endpoints vs. the bispectral index, 95% spectral edge frequency and median frequency during propofol infusion with or without fentanyl. Eur J Anaesthesiol 16:47-52
  • Singh H, Sakai T, Matsuki A (1999): Movement response to skin incision: analgesia vs. bispectral index and 95% spectral edge frequency. Eur J Anaesthesiol 16:610-4
  • Suppes T, Webb A, Carmody T et al (1996): Is postictal electrical silence a predictor of response to electroconvusive therapy? J Affect Dis 41:55-58
  • Swartz CM (1993): Beyond seizure duration as a measure of treatment quality. Convul. Ther. 9:1-7.
  • Swartz CM (1994): Optimizing the ECT stimulus. [Editorial] Convul Therapy 10: 132-134
  • Swartz CM (1996): Disconnection of electroencephalographic, motoric, and cardiac evidence of ECT seizure. Convul. Ther. 12:25-30.
  • Swartz CM et al (1994): Computer automated versus visually determined electroencephalographic and electromyographic seizure duration. Convul. Ther. 10:165-170.
  • Swartz CM, Abrams R (1986): An auditory representation of ECT-induced seizures. Convul. Ther. 2:125-128.
  • Swartz CM, Larson G (1989): ECT stimulus duration and its efficacy. Ann Clin Psychiatry 1:147-52
  • Swartz CM, Manly DT (2000): Efficiency of the stimulus characteristics of ECT. Am J Psychiatry 157:1504-150